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Thursday, June 28, 2012

audio lingual powerpoint

salah satu metode yang kita gunakan untuk mengajar adalah audio-lingual method.... untuk penjelasan lebih lanjut silahkan download disini :
http://www.slideserve.com/adichan/tefl

Monday, June 25, 2012

teaching reading


TEACHING READING SKILL THROUGH GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD
Definition :
The grammar translation method is a foreign language teaching method derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. The method requires students to translate whole texts word for word and memorize numerous grammatical rules and exceptions as well as enormous vocabulary lists. The goal of this method is to be able to read and translate literary masterpieces and classics.
Method
Classes were conducted in the native language. A chapter in a distinctive textbook of this method would begin with a massive bilingual vocabulary list. Grammar points would come directly from the texts and be presented contextually in the textbook, to be explained elaborately by the instructor. Grammar thus provided the rules for assembling words into sentences. Tedious translation and grammar drills would be used to exercise and strengthen the knowledge without much attention to content. Sentences would be deconstructed and translated. Eventually, entire texts would be translated from the target language into the native language and tests would often ask students to replicate classical texts in the target language. Very little attention was placed on pronunciation or any communicative aspects of the language. The skill exercised was reading, and then only in the context of translation.

Criticism

The method by definition has a very limited scope of objectives. Because speaking or any kind of spontaneous creative output was missing from the curriculum, students would often fail at speaking or even letter writing in the target language. A noteworthy quote describing the effect of this method comes from Bahlsen, who was a student of Plötz, a major proponent of this method in the 19th century. In commenting about writing letters or speaking he said he would be overcome with "a veritable forest of paragraphs, and an impenetrable thicket of grammatical rules."[1] Later, theorists such as Vietor,Passy, Berlitz, and Jespersen began to talk about what a new kind of foreign language instruction needed, shedding light on what the grammar translation was missing. They supported teaching the language, not about the language, and teaching in the target language, emphasizing speech as well as text. Through grammar translation, students lacked an active role in the classroom, often correcting their own work and strictly following the textbook.



The Grammar Translation Method
A number of methods and techniques have evolved for the teaching of English and also other foreign languages in the recent past, yet this method is still in use in many parts of India. It maintains the mother tongue of the learner as the reference particularly in the process of learning the second/foreign languages. The main principles on which the Grammar Translation Method is based are the following:
1.     Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner.
2.     The phraseology and the idiom of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation.
3.     The structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrast with those of mother tongue.
In this method, while teaching the text book the teacher translates every word and phrase from English into the learners mother tongue. Further, students are required to translate sentences from their mother tongue into English. These exercises in translation are based on various items covering the grammar of the target language. The method emphasizes the study of grammar through deduction that is through the study of the rules of grammar. A contrastive study of the target language with the mother tongue gives an insight into the structure not only of the foreign language but also of the mother tongue.

Advantages

The grammar translation method has two main advantages.
1.     The phraseology of the target language is quickly explained. Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or words and phrases from one language into another. Any other method of explaining vocabulary items in the second language is found time consuming. A lot of time is wasted if the meanings of lexical items are explained through definitions and illustrations in the second language. Further, learners acquire some sort of accuracy in understanding synonyms in the source language and the target language.
2.     Teacher’s labor is saved. Since the textbooks are taught through the medium of the mother tongue, the teacher may ask comprehension questions on the text taught in the mother tongue. Pupils will not have much difficulty in responding to questions in the mother tongue. So, the teacher can easily assess whether the students have learned what he has taught them. Communication between the teacher and the learner does not cause linguistic problems. Even teachers who are not fluent in English can teach English through this method. That is perhaps the reason why this method has been practiced so widely and has survived so long.

Disadvantages

Along with its advantages, the grammar translation method comes with many disadvantages.
1.    It is an unnatural method[2]. The natural order of learning a language is listening, speaking, reading and writing [[3]]. That is the way a child learns his mother tongue in natural surroundings; but, in the Grammar Translation Method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of reading. Thus, the learning process is reversed. This poses problems [4].
2.   Speech is neglected. The Grammar Translation Method lays emphasis on reading and writing. It neglects speech. Thus, the students who are taught English through this method fail to express themselves adequately in spoken English[5]. Even at the undergraduate stage they feel shy of communicating using English. It has been observed that in a class[6], which is taught English through this method, learners listen to the mother tongue more than that to the second/foreign language. Since language learning involves habit formation such students fail to acquire a habit of speaking English. Therefore, they have to pay a heavy price for being taught through this method.
3.   Exact translation is not possible. Translation is, indeed, a difficult task and exact translation from one language to another is not always possible. A language is the result of various customs, traditions, and modes of behavior of a speech community and these traditions differ from community to community.
4.   It does not give pattern practice. A person can learn a language only when he internalizes its patterns to the extent that they form his habit. But the Grammar Translation Method does not provide any such practice to the learner of a language. It rather attempts to teach language through rules and not by use. Researchers in linguistics have proved that to speak any language, whether native or foreign, entirely by rule is quite impossible. Language learning means acquiring certain skills, which can be learned through practice and not by just memorizing rules. The persons who have learned a foreign or second language through this method find it difficult to give up the habit of first thinking in their mother tongue and then translating their ideas into the second language. They, therefore, fail to get proficiency in the second language approximating that in the first language. The method, therefore, suffers from certain weaknesses for which there is no remedy.



Conclusion

The grammar translation method stayed in schools until the 1960s, when a complete foreign language pedagogy evaluation was taking place. In the meantime, teachers experimented with approaches like the direct method in post-war and Depression era classrooms, but without much structure to follow. The trusty grammar translation method set the pace for many classrooms for many decades.

budaya unik


 Ritual erat kaitannya dengan budaya, Pulau Bali terkenal akan berbagai macam ritual dan budayanya, dan merupakan daya tarik bagi para wisatawan domestik maupun mancanegara. Salah satu atraksi budaya yang sudah dikenal di mancanegara adalah okokan.
Okokan adalah salah suatu alat musik bunyi-bunyian yang pada umumnya terbuat dari bahan kayu yang dilobangi hampir menyerupai kentongan, tetapi didalamnya diisi pemukul yang disebut palit. Alat bunyi-bunyian ini umumnya dipasang pada binatang piaraan seperti sapi atau kerbau, yang berfungsi sebagai penghias atau tanda hewan tersebut, okokan ini akan mengeluarkan irama tertentu jika diayun-ayunkan, okokan seperti ini ukurannya relative kecil.
Sebagai suatu kelompok masyarakat yang agraris yang selalu dekat dengan tradisi bercocok tanam, okokan juga dipakai sebagai sarana hiburan ataupun acara ritual yang berbau magis.
Banjar Belong, Desa Baturiti Kerambitan,Tabanan,  2km kearah utara dari Pasar Kerambitan.  Desa yang masih asri dengan berbagai tanamannya, jauh dari kesan polusi, disinilah lahir okokan pertama yang lahir dikecamatan Kerambitan. Berawal dari tradisi agraris secara turun temurun dari para tetua atau para leluhur, maka alat musik ini sudah merupakan bagian dari kehidupan petani tradisional di Banjar Belong. Untuk mengisi waktu saat menunggu musim panen, para tetua terdahulu membuat alat musik okokan dalam ukuran yang cukup besar.
Okokan ini tidak dipasang pada binatang piaraan, tetapi dikalungkan langsung pada leher orang dan di ayun-ayunkan, kegiatan ini biasanya diperagakan untuk upacara tertentu dan menghibur diri sambil menunggu musim panen tiba.
“Menurut penuturan tetua Banjar Belong, bermula dari wabah, okokan ini dimainkan untuk mengusir wabah, sesuia kepercayaan bahwa wabah yang menyerang itu disebabkan oleh mahluk halus, maka harus diusir dengan membunyikan alat-alat yang menghasilkan bunyi, maka digunakanlah okokan dengan dimainkan oleh beberapa orang untuk mengusir wabah,” ungkap I Ketut Sudiarsa, mekel kesenian sekaligus ketua okokan.
Ritual ini disebut Ngerebeg, “Untuk menambah sakrak ngerebeg, maka okokan ini diiringi dua buah kendang, yang disebut kendang gede, dibuat kira-kira tahun 1917 selanjutnya kendang gede inilah yang dipercaya warga Banjar Belong diyakini memiliki kekuatan magis, “ tambah Sudiarsa.
Lebih lanjut Sudiarsa menambahkan, setiap ada wabah yang melanda masyarakat seperti cacar, kolera dan sebaginya, maka tetua desa akan mengambil tindakan demi keselamatan warga dengan upacara pecaruan diiringi dengan gegerebegan, selain itu juga dilaksanakan sehabis melakukan upacara tawur kesanga dengan mengelilingi desa.
Lambat laun tradisi ngerebeg inin bukan hanya dilakukan berkaitan dengan acara ritual, tetapi juga pada kegiatan-kegiatan seperti acara keramain, lomba desa, 17agustusan, penyambutan pejabat serta pertunjukan untuk wisatawan. “berawal dari ide tokoh pariwisata,AA Ngurah Oka Silagunada, untuk menampilkan okokan ini sebagai atraksi kesenian, maka warga Banjar Belong, membentuk sekaa okokan yang diiringi dua buah kendang gede, yang melibatkan seluruh anggota banjar yang berjumlah 45 kepala keluarga maka terbentuklah Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari pada tahun 1991,” tambah Sudiarsa
“Pertama kalinya okokan ini ditampilkan secara komersial pada bulan Juni 1991, di Hotel Putri Bali di Nusa Dua, pementasan pertama kalinya ini mendapat sambutan yang sangat meriah dari wisatawan mancanegara, bahkan saking tertariknya beberapa wisatawan meminjam okokan yang sedang dimainkan untuk sekedar mencoba memainkannya sendiri,”ungkap Sudiarsa.
Setelah pementasan yang pertama itu, tidak berselang lama Sekaa Okokan Mekar sari mulai mendapat tawaran untuk pentas dibeberapa hotel di Nusa Dua dan sekitarnya. “Saking seringnya pentas,okokan peninggalan tetua kami sudah mulai rusak. Dengan kondisi seperti itu, maka hasil musyawarah warga banjar yang sekaligus anggota sekaa okokan bertekad memperbarui okokan dengan jalan membuat yang baru, kayu yang kami gunakan adalah Kayu Sane, sebelum proses pembuatannya  diadakan upacara nunas raos dan mohon petunjuk dari leluhur di pura sesuhunan yang ada di banjar adat kami, “tambah bapak dengan kumis tebal ini.
Untuk mengembalikan kemagisan okokan yang baru dibuat,maka diadakanlah upacara Pemelaspasan dan Masupati pada tanggal 20 November 1991 yang dihadiri oleh seluruh anggota Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari dan langsung dipentaskan dihalaman balai banjar yang tetap dipandu dengan dua buah Kendang Gede.
Dalam perjalannya Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari selalu kebanjiran tawaran untuk pentas ”Dulu sebelum ada bom bali, kami hampir setiap hari tampil, bahkan dalam satu hari kami pernah tampil dua kali, selalu ada saja hotel, maupun acara penyambutan yang menyewa kami untuk pentas, namun setelah bom bali, intensitas pementasan kami berkurang, yang dulu dalam seminggu minimal tiga kali pentas, sekarang sebulan dua sampai tiga kali pentas, tetapi tetap dalam sebulan selalu ada saja yang tawaran untuk pentas, dan pementasan rutin kami di puri anyar kerambitan untuk menyambut wisatawan macanegara, “ ungkap Sudiarsa.
Lebih lanjut Sudiarsa mengatakan, Okokan Mekar Sari sudah dikenal di mancanegara, para menteri dari dalam maupun luar negeri,presiden dari luar negeri, para pejabat dan pengusaha dan banyak lagi sudah kita sambut dengan Okokan Mekar Sari.
Selain itu juga Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari pernah tampil di ajang Pesta Kesenian Bali (PKB) pada tahun 1996 dan 1997, tampil dalam acara gembyar remaja di TVRI, tampil dalam acara seremonial yang diadakan pemda Tabanan, dan Pemprop Bali. Dalam sekali pementasannya, Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari biasanya berdurasi 15 sampai 30 menit dengan berat okokan berkisar antara 10 samapi 15 kg, “dalam pementasannya sekaa kami tidak pernah merasa berat karena bagi kami ini adalah ngayah untuk banjar, “ ungkap salah satu Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari.
Sekali pentas, Sekaa Okokan Mekar Sari memasang tarif 1.2 sampai 1.5 juta, dan pendapatan itu dikumpulkan sebagai kas banjar, dari hasil ka situ, Desa Belong sudah bias membeli seperangkat alat gong untuk desa, membangun pura, membangun balai banjar, medana punia di pura dan setiap hari raya galungan, kas diambil bebrapa untuk dibagikan ke Sekaa yang juga anggota banjar untuk membeli keperluan upacara. “Dari hasil itu kami sudah bisa membangun desa ini, mungkin dari pertama okokan ini berdiri hasil yang sudah kami capai diatas 1 milyar dan sudah banyak pembangunan yang kami sudah buat untuk desa ini, “ ungkap salah satu sekaa okokan.

sejarah okokan..
okokan adalah instrumen semacam bel berukuran raksasa yang dibuat dari kayu yang dijadikan alat komunikasi oleh kelompok masyarakat di desa-desa terpencil. Instrumen yang sama, namun dengan ukuran yang lebih kecil disebut kroncongan yang biasa dipasang di atas pohon untuk mengusir binatang--binatang perusak tanaman kelapa, sebagai kalung ternak (sapi maupun kerbau).
Atas prakarsa masyarakat Kukuh (kabupaten Tabanan) di mana terdapat cukup banyak instrumen okokan, alat-alat bunyi ini ditata menjadi sebuah barungan yang disebut Okokan atau kalau di Indonesiakan menjadi Ombelan I Kayu Bolong yang artinya suara yang keluar dari kayu yang dilobang, dan tiada lain OKOKAN.
Ada sedikitnya 30 buah okokan dalam barungan ini. Sejumlah pemain yang memainkan dengan cara mengocoknya. Selain okokan dalam barungan ini juga dimasukkan dua buah kendang, 1 buah kajar, 6 buah cengceng dan sejumlah instrumen pukul lainnya. Musik yang ditimbulkan barungan berukuran besar ini sangat ritmis dan bersuasana magis.
Pada jaman dulu barungan ini digunakan sebagai salah satu sarana untuk mengusir wabah yang menimpa desa setempat. Dengan nuansa yg magis dipercaya mampu mengusir hal-hal yg bersipat negative.

example of a short and simple spech


Clean Environment For a Healthy Life
There are many cases and disaster are happened in our belove country, Indonesia, such as flood, tsunami, etc. Today i am going to share about disaster that mostly happened in Indonesia, that is flood. it attacks the people in Indonesia every year, especially in rainy season. This usualy happend not only in big city like Jakarta, but also in small city or some regencies in Indonesia like Denpasar or other place in Bali. Why it could be??? The answer is, it is caused by the people itself. They do not really care about their environment arround them.

There are many reasons, why Indonesia often attacked by flood. The first,  the people in Indonesia do not care about their environment. The second, they do not think twice to do something that make flood happen, for example, the small thing likes trhrowing the rubbish everywhere, especilly into the river. That makes the flood happend in Jakarta. They do not think about the disadvantages to do that. They just want to be easier. But when the rainy season come, they get flood. Althougth this thing happen every year, they do not change their life style.

It really different with the other country in the world like Singapore, and Switzerland. These contries have different way to make their country to be the cleanest country in the world. For example in Singapore, the people there are afraid to throw the rubbish everywhere, because there are punishments for them who did that thing. The goverment will charge them with some money. So the people are afraid with that punishment. Different cases happen in Switzerland. The goverment there, has a special crew for cleaning the city or the village, and every 100 meters, there is a basket for  throwing the people’s rubbish. So, all people on the way do not throw their rubbish everywhere. That makes that country clean. Special for Japan, there is a place there that become the cleanest city in that country.

From those example, we can see that, there are many ways for the goverment in the other country to make their country clean and never find big problem like us, especially our annual problem, flood.  may be, we are different with Singapore, they are a small country, but us, we are a big country. So, what we should is, we must realize it from ourself. We have to understand about disadvantages of throwing the rubbish everywhere. If we do not want that thing happen to us, we can start it from ourself. Small thing that we can do is, just throw the rubbish in the basket where du you see it. If you do not find a basket for it, just keep it in your pocket. And, after you find the basket, you can throw it there. It may be the hardest thing to do, because it does not our habit, but we can start it from now. If you have some rubbish in your home, you can collect, and then chose them or divided them into 2 part. Rubbish from plastic and organic plastic. So, after you divide that rubbish, you can burn the rubbish from plastic. It may be wasted your time, but it can help us to make our environment clean. And flood can be avoided. It seems like a small thing and very easy to do, but when we practice it, it really hard to do, because we make a new habit for our life.

So, from my speech I can conclude that, to make our environment clean, we should to that first from ourself. We can do a smll thing, but it can help us to stay healthy. If our environment clean, I believe, a disaster, diases, and the other bad thing can be avoided. That is all.. thank you!!!

Wednesday, June 6, 2012

jenis - jenis English Text

1. Recount Text Is text that telling the reader about one story, action or activity. Its goal is to entertaining or informing the reader. a. The generic structure of recount text : - Orientation tells who was involved, what happened, where the events took place, and when it happened. - Events tell what happened and in what sequence. - Reorientation consists of optional-closure of events/ending. b. Lexicogrammatical features - Focus on specific participants. - Use of material processes. - Circumstances of time and place. - Use of Past Tense. - Focus on temporal seuence.

 2. Report Text Is a text which gives information about situations, after getting some investigations and considerations. Its social purpose is presenting information about something. a. The generic structure of report text : - General Clasification Is a general statement which explain about the report subject, and clarifications. - Description tells what the phenomenon under discussion ; in terms of parts, qualities, habits or behavior. b. Lexicogrammatical Grammatical Features - Focus on generic participants. - Use of relation processes. - Use simple present tense. - No temporal sequences.

 3. Discussion Text Discussion text is an explanative text which presents arguments of both agreement and disagreement, pros and cons. The text of discussion explain the issue from different points of view. a. The generic structure of discussion text : - Issue a statement of the issues involved and a preview of the main arguments - arguments for, it states with supporting evidence/examples - arguments against or alternative views it states with supporting evidence/examples. - Conclusion It concludes the discussions. b. Lexicogrammatical features : - Focus on generic human and non-human participants. - Use of material processes, relation processes, and mental processes. - Use of comparative, contrasive and conseuntial conjunction. - Reasoning express as verbs and nouns.

 4. Explanation Text is written to explain how or why something happens, eg how river valleys are formed or why the Romans built roads. Typically such text consists of a description of the phenomenon and an explanatory sequence a. The generic structure of explanation text : - General statement Is explaining about the general information. - A sequence explanation Is the explanation of the general information b. Lexicogrammatical Features - Focus on generic and non-human participants. - Use mainly of material and ralational processes. - Use mainly of temporal and causal circumstances and conjunctions.

 5. Analytical Exposition Text is a sort text which is meant to persuade the readers or listeners that something is the case or important. a. The generic structure of analytical Exposition Text : - Thesis Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position - Argument Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position - Argument 2 Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more. - Reiteration Restating the writer’s position. b. Lexicogrammatical features - Focus on generic human and non-human participants. - Use of Simple Present Tense - Use of relational processes. - Use of internal conjunction. - Reasoning through conjunction or nominalization.

 6. Hortatory Exposition The text which explain about theory or problem comprehensively to persuade person to do something, or not to do anything. a. The generic structure of hortatory Exposition - Thesis General statement or the opening of the problem or the topic which will be discussed. - Arguments Is the statement which is connected with the thesis or the general statement. - Recomendation The statement which is stated an arguments of the topic. b. Lexicogrammatical Features - Use of material processes, relation processes, and mental processes. - Use of Simple Present Tense.

 7. News Item Text is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important. a. The generic structure of news Item Text : - Main Events Is the main event which is proper to be a news. - Elaboration Is the explanation about the background of the event, like the person who involve in that event, the place, etc. - Resource of Information The source that is used as the resource of the events such as the statement from the experts, the comments, etc. b. Lexicogrammatical Features - Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline. - Use of the material processes. - Use of projecting verbal processes in source stage. - Focus on circumstances.

 8. Anecdote Text text is a text that has social function to share an unusual or amusing incident. a. The generic structure of Anecdote text - Abstract tells the unusual incident will be happened in the story. It signals the unique part of the story. It is usually written in questions e.g. have you ever fall in love?, have you ever lost your mobile phone? - Orientation is part where the writer tell who, when, where the story happens. It tells the subject, situation and place of the story. - Crisis is a part of unusual incident happens. The writer tells the incident in details. The unique part of the story is presented very clearly. - Reaction tells how the subject of the story reacts to the incident. The writer should tells the feeling and actions of the subject facing the unusual incident. - Coda is the closing part of the story. b. Lexicogrammatical Features - use of exclamationals, rhetotorical questions and intensifier. - use of material processes. - use of temporal conjunctions.

 9. Narrative Text in witten form is purpose to entrtain, create, stimulate emotions, motivate, give and teach the readers. a. The generic structure of narrative text is : - Orientation which sets the scene and introduces the characters (answer the questions : who, when, what, and where) - Complication in which a crisis or a problem arise, which usually involves the main haracters - Resolution a solution to the problem (better / worse). The main characters find ways to solve problem b. Lexicogrammatical Features - Focus on specific and usually individualized participants. - Use of material processes and behavioral and verbal processes. - Use of ralational and mental processes. - Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances. - Use of Past Tense.

 10. Procedure Text Is a text which is used to describe how is something accomplished through a sequence of actions and steps. a. The generic structure of procedure Text : - Goal The purpose of the action of the actions or the result of the actions. - Material The material which are needed in the actions. - Steps The methods that is used in doing the actions. b. Lexicogrammatical Features - Focus on generalized human agents. - Use of Present Tense. - Use of temporal conjunction. - Use of material processes .

11. Description Text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing. a. The generic structure of description Text : - Identification Is stated the descriptions of what will be describe. - Description Is stated about explanation about something, or person and explain about the characteristic. b. Lexicogrammmatical Features - Focus on specific participants. - Use of attribute and idenditifying processes. - Frequent of ephitets and clasifier in nominal group. - Use of Simple Present Tense.

 12. Review Text Is a text which is used to critize an art work, event fo public audience. a. The generic structure of Review Text : - Orientation Is places the work in its general and particular context, often by comparing it with others of its kind or through an analog with a non–art object or event. - Interpretive Recount Is summarize the plot and/or providers an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being. - Evaluation Is provides an evaluation of the work and/or its performance or production. b. Lexicogrammatical Features - Focus on particular participants. - Use of qualitative attributes and affective mental processes. - Use of elaborating and extending clause. - Use of metaphorical language.